- This indicates that the malignancy has spread to the mucosa and submucosa. The cancer has progressed deeper into the colon wall but has not spread to surrounding organs or lymph nodes in stage 1 colon cancer. Cancer that was a component of the polyp is also included in stage 1 colon cancer.
- If the cancer-containing portion of the polyp was removed during a colonoscopy and no cancer cells were found at the margins of the excised piece, no further treatment may be necessary. If the polyp could not be entirely removed or if the polyp had to be removed in parts, making it difficult to identify if there were cancer cells at the edges, the patient may be advised to have additional surgery.
- T1-T2: T1 refers to cancer that has spread beyond the muscularis mucosa and into the submucosa. T2 refers to cancer that has spread into the muscularis propria.
- N0: There is no evidence that the malignancy has progressed to the lymph nodes.
- M0: The cancer hasn't spread to other parts of the body or to other organs.
- For malignancies that aren't in the polyp, a partial colectomy is performed. A partial colectomy is the removal of a cancerous section of the colon as well as adjacent lymph nodes. This is the typical treatment for stage 1 colon cancer, and the patient will not require further treatment.