Types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours:

The tumor's ability to function (that is, make hormones) or not function (that is, not make hormones) is a significant element in predicting the prognosis. The type of hormone can also be crucial if the tumour is functioning. There are five different categories of functional tumours based on the hormones they emit, albeit the tumour can also release many hormones.


Gastrin, a hormone that induces stomach acid production, is produced in excess by the tumour. Gastrin overdose can induce stomach ulcers as well as Zollinger Ellison syndrome. Gastrinoma can cause stomach ulcers, stomach pain, back pain, diarrhoea, and other symptoms.


Insulin is a hormone that aids in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy and regulates blood sugar levels in the body. Low blood sugar is caused by the tumour producing too much insulin, a condition known as hypoglycemia. Insulinomas can be malignant or non-cancerous. Insulinoma symptoms include blurred vision, dizziness, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and weakness.


Glucagon turns glycogen into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. When a neuroendocrine tumour produces glucagon, blood sugar levels rise, resulting in hyperglycemia.Some of the usual symptoms include a rash on the face, stomach, and legs, blood clots in the lungs or arms or legs, headaches, frequent urination, and dry skin.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a hormone that promotes salt and water absorption in the small intestine. Increased VIP production can lead to diarrhoea and the Verner Morrison syndrome. VIPoma symptoms include diarrhoea, dehydration, dry skin or mouth, headaches, dizziness, low potassium levels in the body, cramping or stomach pain, and unexplained weight loss.


Somatostatin is a hormone that governs rapid cell reproduction and regulates the production of other hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, and gastrin. Somatostatin is produced in excess by tumours in somatostatinoma. High blood sugar, frequent urination, dry skin, headaches, feeling thirsty, hungry, or weak, gallstones, skin yellowing, and unexplained weight loss are some of the symptoms of this type of tumour.


Staging is a critical stage in identifying the severity and spread of cancer, as well as the treatment options and survival rates and outlook.

Stage 1: The tumour is less than 2 cm in diameter and is still in the pancreas, with no evidence of metastasis to other organs. The stage division is as follows: (T1, N0, M0)

Stage 2: The tumour has progressed to the duodenum and common bile duct and is 2 to 4 cm in size. The cancer has not progressed to the lymph nodes or other regions of the body at this stage.

Stage 3: The tumour has spread to neighbouring organs such as the stomach, spleen, and colon, or lymph nodes, but not to distant sections of the body.

Stage 4: The tumour has progressed to distant parts of the body and may or may not have spread to the lymph nodes.


Treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is primarily determined by whether or not the tumours are resectable; nevertheless, these tumours are more likely to be resectable than exocrine pancreatic malignancies.

Surgery is the best approach for resectable tumours, and it typically suffices. The specific procedure is determined by the tumor's size, location, and type.

Surgery alone will not be enough to treat unresectable tumours, and doctors may recommend chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may also be required in the case of tumours that are poorly differentiated.

Survival Rates:

The five-year survival rate is a measure that illustrates how many people out of a hundred with a specific malignancy survive five years following diagnosis. Only if individuals with PNET were subjected to surgery are survival statistics available by stage.

Based on the data from 1985 to 2004:

Stage 1 patients have a survival rate of around 61 percent, stage 2 patients have a survival rate of 52 percent, stage 3 patients have a survival rate of 41 percent, and stage 4 patients have a survival rate of 16 percent. As evidenced by statistics, early detection increases the patient's odds. Patients who did not undergo surgery had an overall survival rate of roughly 16 percent.