Cancer cells are killed with anti-cancer drugs administered intravenously (intravenously). Even so, this type of treatment works better for certain types of bone cancer than for others.

Most commonly used drug combinations for chemotherapy-

  • cisplatin and doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
  • high-dose methotrexate, cisplatin, and doxorubicin
  • ifosfamide (Ifex), cisplatin, and epirubicin (Pharmorubicin)
  • doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, and high-dose methotrexate

If osteosarcoma does not react to previous treatments or recurs, the following options may be helpful:

  • cyclophosphamide, and topotecan (Hycamtin)
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar)
  • docetaxel (Taxotere) and gemcitabine
  • high-dose ifosfamide, with or without etoposide
  • ifosfamide, carboplatin (Paraplatin, Paraplatin AQ) and etoposide
  • high-dose methotrexate, etoposide, and ifosfamide
  • cyclophosphamide (Procytox) and etoposide (Vepesid, VP-16)

Some other drugs that can be used in chemotherapy

  • Methotrexate
  • Cosmogenic (Dactinomycin)
  • Vincristine
  • Denosumab
  • Trexall (Methotrexate)
  • Xgeva (Denosumab)

Side effects of Chemotherapy

  1. Nauseousness

Antiemetic medicines are used to treat vomiting symptoms. Antiemetics are more effective when ginger or ginger supplements are taken.

2. Hair loss, or alopecia

The patient's hair may begin to thin or fall out, causing anxiety. In such instances, a doctor may recommend counselling. The scalp is kept cool by wearing a cold hat when the dose is given. Wigs can be bought until the hair grows back

3. Fatigue

A typical side effect that can occur when completing particular tasks or throughout the day. It is suggested that you obtain enough sleep and rest.Over-exhaustion should be reported to a doctor since it could be a sign of anemia, which is caused by a decline in red blood cell count.

4.Bleeding problems due to a low platelet count

Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which the number of platelets in the blood drops, causing blood clotting issues. This can lead to nosebleeds, gum bleeding, and profuse bleeding from skin wounds, necessitating immediate blood transfusions. Avoiding the use of razors, brushing with a soft toothbrush, and wearing gloves or mittens while working in the kitchen or garden are all precautions to take.

5. Anemia and a decreased red blood cell count

Anemia can be caused by a decline in red blood cell count. Tiredness, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations are some of the symptoms. EPO (erythropoietin) is a hormone that aids in the formation of red blood cells. In this situation, iron-rich foods such as apricots, prunes, and dried fruits should be included in the regular diet.

6. Digestive and bowel problems

The abrupt ejection of bodily cells might cause diarrhoea. Constipation is a possibility as well.

7.Appetite loss

Chemotherapy can have an impact on a person's appetite, metabolism, and eating habits. In this circumstance, it is critical to consume food on a regular basis. A nasogastric tube provides food to the stomach straight through the nose for people who are unable to eat orally.

8. Fertility difficulties and pregnancy

Chemotherapy can also lead to a loss of libido. Chemotherapy medications can also cause birth abnormalities; thus doctors advise against having a child. Barrier birth control options are critical in this situation.

9. Mucositis (inflammation of the mucous membranes)

Mucous membrane inflammation can occur anywhere throughout the digestive tract, including the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum, and anus. Mucositis is less likely with newer chemotherapy treatments. Dietary habits may be disrupted by mouth ulcers. Caphosol is a medication used to treat mucositis. Symptoms, on the other hand, do not persist once treatment is completed.

10. Impaired hearing

Chemotherapy medications' toxic effects might cause temporary or permanent hearing loss.

11. Decreased immunity due to a low white blood cell count

The patient's immune system may become faulty as a result of the decline in white blood cell count, putting him or her prone to infections and other illnesses. Neutropenia is the medical term for this condition. Antibiotics can help to mitigate these side effects. Personal cleanliness, avoiding persons with communicable diseases, dietary intake, and keeping skin wounds bandaged are all crucial precautions.

12. Problems with cognition

The stress of chemo may have an impact on the patient's attention, memory, moods, thinking, and mental capacities. With regular emotional and psychological care from family and loved ones, this could take several months to recover from.