The term "stage" relates to cancer's severity. Making an informed treatment decision is critical for anybody diagnosed with cancer, and it starts with determining the stage or course of blood cancer. However, knowing the stage of blood cancer is one of the most critical variables in determining the best treatment choice. The majority of malignancies are classified into stages based on the size and spread of tumours. However, unlike other cancers, blood cancer develops in the bone marrow, in the developing blood cells, which makes it a unique disease with different staging.
Leukaemia stages are thus classified based on blood cell counts and the accumulation of these cells in other organs such as the liver and spleen. Doctors frequently perform X-rays, lab tests, and other screening methods for blood cancer detection in order to examine and determine these phases.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia :
Staging of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is an important component in determining how to treat cancer. Normally, blood cancers are staged based on tumour size and distribution, but this approach does not work for leukaemias because they are cancers of the bone marrow, and the creation of malignant tumours is uncommon. Staging strategies for different leukaemias varies as well. CLL has two staging systems- Rai and Binet, the first one being more common in the US and the latter preferred in Europe.
The Rai staging method
The Rai staging method divides cancer into five stages, and the stage of CLL is determined by three factors: whether or not lymph nodes, spleen, or other organs are enlarged, the total number of lymphocytes in the blood, and whether or not anaemia or another condition is present. Rai Stage 0 to Rai Stage IV are the stages.
The Binet staging
The Binet staging approach differs from the previous one in that it considers how many different types of lymphoid tissues are impacted. Clinical phases are the following stages:
- Stage 1 of the clinical trial
- Stage B of clinical trials
- Stage C of treatment
CLL affects less than three organs in Stage A, more than three organs in Stage B, and the presence of anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in Stage C.
Multiple Myeloma Stages:
There are two major staging conventions for myeloma, both of which assign three stages to the disease but evaluate distinct aspects. They are as follows:
- International Staging System:
The amounts of albumin and microglobulin in the blood are used to define the stages in the International Staging System. More than 10,000 cancer cases have been used to develop this approach.
- Durie-Salmon Staging:
This approach assigns stages based on a number of criteria, including the number of malignant cells, bone damage, M protein levels, calcium levels in the blood, albumin and haemoglobin levels. (, for instance, Stage IA)
Also, there is a deeper classification based on if there is kidney damage (Group A indicating normal kidney function, B indicating abnormality, for example Stage IA)
Multiple Myeloma Stages:
There are numerous classifications depending on several aspects, including the stage of myeloma, the patient's symptoms, the existence of symptoms, and so on. Here are a few examples of language used to describe the many forms of myeloma.
1. Symptomatic and asymptomatic conditions:
As the name implies, asymptomatic refers to a patient who exhibits no symptoms of bodily harm. At this stage, the malignancy may be stable or progress to symptomatic myeloma. Smouldering or indolent myeloma is another term for asymptomatic myeloma. An asymptomatic myeloma is a form of myeloma that is active and causes organ damage.
1. Hyperdiploid and Hypodiploid:
Another classification system is based on the number of chromosomes in myeloma cells. Myeloma cells that are hyperdiploid contain more chromosomes than normal cells, while hypodiploid myeloma cells have fewer chromosomes. In comparison to hypodiploid, hyperdiploid is less aggressive.