Breast cancer can be caused by changes or mutations in DNA. Our genes are made up of DNA, a molecule found in our bodies. While breast cancer can be handed down from parents to children, this is not the case in the majority of cases. What you eat and how much you exercise are also important factors to consider. Hormones may potentially play a role in breast cancer progression.

  • Most DNA mutations are acquired, which indicates that the person did not inherit the ailment and instead developed it over time. The genes that inform our cells how to work contain DNA. The way cells divide, and die is modified when their DNA mutates. This results in unregulated cell division, which leads to the creation of tumours.
  • Proto-oncogenes aid normal cell growth. Proto-oncogenes can sometimes mutate into ‘bad' genes known as ‘oncogenes.' Oncogenes cause cells to grow uncontrollably, resulting in the production of more cells than are required. Cancer develops as a result of this.
  • Normal genes that slow cell division and control cell death are known as tumour suppressor genes. When tumour suppressor genes aren't working properly, cell division and mortality rates are slowed. This could result in cancer once more. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are two examples of tumour suppressor genes.