Testicular cancer is one of the most treatable cancers, with the following treatment options being the most common:

Surgery: Surgery is one of the most effective ways to treat testicular cancer since it can totally eradicate the disease in its early stages. Even if the cancer has spread, it is necessary to remove one or both testicles if the illness has damaged both. The two major operations for testicular cancer treatment are radical inguinal orchiectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.

Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy involves killing cancer cells with high-intensity radiation and is also used if tumours are to be targeted, as opposed to chemotherapy, which kills cancer cells throughout the body. However, due to the risk of infertility, radiotherapy is only used if the cancer has spread or is likely to recur.

Chemotherapy : It is a type of treatment that employs chemicals to kill cancer cells all over the body. It is used when testicular cancer has spread to other organs or if there is a risk of recurrence. It can be used as an adjuvant therapy both before and after surgery.

OTHER TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENTS

Surveillance

Surveillance refers to the monitoring of patients under rigorous medical supervision, and it mostly involves healthcare personnel keeping a careful eye on patients to ensure that they do not acquire a recurring or secondary cancer, or show indicators of cancer spread. Almost half of the patients who were monitored on a regular basis had their cancer treated without the need for significant surgery. It mostly aids in avoiding the negative side effects that patients may experience as a result of chemo or radiotherapy.

The monitoring will only be effective if both the doctor and the patient are committed. Patients must ensure that they are checked on a frequent basis. This monitoring is suggested for everyone because it causes no harm to anyone.

Surveillance may be required for up to ten years, depending on the patient and their medical condition. Patients will need to be monitored once every two to six months at first. The intervals get longer as time goes on. Patients who have had nonseminomas treated must be monitored more regularly than those who have had seminomas treated. Patients will be guided in terms of nutrition and exercise, as well as mental health.

The following tests are frequently used to monitor patients during surveillance:

  • The testicles are examined physically.
  • Tumor marker tests/blood tests
  • CT scan of the abdomen
  • chest x-ray

In the early stages:

If the cancer has not progressed beyond the testicles and is not spreading, most physicians prefer to keep a careful eye on the patient rather than pursuing a treatment plan. Other treatments may not be necessary if the cancer does not extend beyond the testicles.

Post-surgery:

If the doctors do not foresee a relapse, surveillance may be preferred to chemotherapy or radiotherapy to guarantee that all cancer cells have died. The adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy exceed the risk of recurrence. If the testicular cancer returns, the patient can receive one of the two treatments listed above.

COMPLICATIONS

Surveillance does not have many consequences for testicular cancer, but the frequent visits and check-ups may cause patients to get stressed. Patients may experience physical stress as a result of many trips to surveillance teams; also, the tests that are included are not inexpensive, making it impossible for patients to complete them for all visits. Another crucial element to consider is the patient's mentality, as living with the knowledge of having cancer but not being treated for it can be mentally difficult.

STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

It is a therapy option for testicular cancer that is rarely used because this disease type does not spread rapidly. It is used to allow strong doses of chemotherapy to be administered in the event that testicular cancer has spread to other organs or recurred.

In the treatment of this cancer type, stem cell transplantation entails collecting and freezing the patient's stem cells if they are not impacted by cancer, followed by strong doses of chemotherapy to destroy malignant cells in the body. Because the bone marrow is destroyed as a result of this, the patient is given stem cells to infuse back into the body and begin making blood cells normally.

COMPLICATIONS

Nausea, vomiting, infection, mouth or throat pain, needless bleeding, the need for blood transfusions, lung issues, and graft failure are some of the most common side effects of stem cell transplantation.

Because an allogeneic transplant is rarely necessary in stem cell transplantation for the treatment of testicular cancer, the risk of graft versus host disease isn't a concern. The above-mentioned negative effects of stem cell transplant are exacerbated by the side effects of chemotherapy.