The most common risk factors associated with throat cancer are:
- Asian ancestry: People belonging to Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore), China, or India places are at greater risk of developing throat cancer.
- History of Plummer-Vinson syndrome: Plummer-Vinson syndrome is a condition in which an individual has difficulty in swallowing, anemia, and formation of webs in the food pipe.
- HPV exposure: Infection in the mouth and throat due to the HPV virus.
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exposure: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exposure has many symptoms such as fever, a sore throat, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, and (in some cases), an enlarged spleen
- Tobacco use: Smoking, snuffing, or chewing. can result in throat cancer.
- Alcohol: Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for throat cancer.
- Chewing betel nuts, leaves, and/or gutka: Individuals who chew betel nuts, leaves, and/or gutka are at higher risk of developing throat cancer.