The TNM method of staging cancer, which is commonly used to stage malignancies that produce tumours, is utilised to stage prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is staged using two additional parameters: PSA levels and grade (based on the Gleason score).
Stage 1 Prostate Cancer
The cancer is exclusively found in the prostate at this stage, and PSA values are less than 10. Because stage I prostate cancer is tiny, it cannot be felt during physical examinations. Prostate tumours that are microscopic are found in less than half of the prostate lobes. Prostate tumours at stage I have a Gleason score of fewer than 6. It's in the cT1, N0, M0, Grade 1 level. Cancer has not progressed to any lymph nodes or other organs at this stage.
The cancer is staged as cT2a, N0, M0, Grade group 1 when it can be felt in DRE testing and has not spread.
The prostate is staged as pT2, N0, M0, Grade Group 1 when it is removed when the cancer is in stage 1.
What is the treatment for prostate cancer at stage I?
Because the cancer is small and limited to the prostate gland, its growth and spread may be gradual, and it may go undetected for years. The treatment plan is determined by the patient's age, overall health, and ability to withstand the treatment. The following are the most commonly used treatment options for stage I prostate cancer:
Because this cancer kind grows slowly, men may not require treatment right away, if not for the rest of their lives. Active surveillance is a technique for keeping a careful eye on malignancy on a frequent basis. Once every six months or so, a PSA blood test, DRE (digital rectal examination), and prostate biopsies may be performed. If the results indicate that the cancer is spreading, the therapeutic options for eradicating the malignancy are considered.
Radiation therapy is a treatment that uses high-energy x-rays to eliminate cancerous cells. Radiation is directed at cancer cells in order to destroy them, slow their growth, and shrink tumours. The two most common types of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer are:
- External beam radiation therapy, also known as EBRT, uses a machine outside the body to focus radiation beams on the prostate gland, which is used to treat cancer in its early stages.
- Brachytherapy: Small radioactive pellets the size of a grain of rice are implanted directly inside the prostate gland, also known as seed implantation or interstitial radiation therapy. This treatment is used alone in people with cancer that is in its early stages and is growing slowly. Otherwise, it is preferable to use this in conjunction with other therapeutic options.
Surgery is the preferred treatment option for prostate malignancies that are symptomatic but limited to the prostate gland. The most common procedure is radical prostatectomy, which involves removing not just the prostate gland but also the surrounding tissue, including the seminal vesicles. The two types of procedures are radical retropubic prostatectomy and radical perineal prostatectomy, which differ in how the prostate is addressed.