Following are the methods available to treat this stage of lung cancer.

  1. Targeted Therapy

Special medications have been created to target cancer cells and the alterations that they cause. Targeted therapy is the term for this type of treatment. The type of mutation in the tumour cell, such as EGFR, ALK, ROS 1, BRAF, and others, determines the type of targeted therapy. This assessment can also be done with a liquid biopsy, and depending on the mutation, the patient will be given an oral tablet.

2. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy could be used as a palliative treatment to help the patient cope with their symptoms. Chemotherapy can only be given to patients who are in good health.

Chemotherapy drugs can be injected into the patient's bloodstream or taken orally. Chemotherapy is normally administered in cycles, with four to six cycles being the most common.

3. Pleurodesis and Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis is performed on individuals who have a malignant pleural effusion, which is fluid that collects around the chest and makes breathing difficult. The operation of emptying the collected fluid from the chest area is known as thoracentesis.

Pleurodesis is a procedure in which a sclerosing substance (Talc, Bleomycin) is injected into the pleural cavity to prevent pleural effusion from developing further.

4. Other alternatives for treatment

Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and bisphosphonates are used to treat individuals with bone metastases, or cancer that has spread to the bone. Surgery, radiosurgery, or radiation are viable therapeutic options for patients with brain metastasis, where the cancer has progressed to the brain.