Prognosis is a medical term for forecasting how an illness will progress, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve, deteriorate, or remain stable over time and for how long. It also includes quality of life expectations, such as the capacity to do daily tasks, the risk of complications and related health conditions, and the possibility of survival.

What factors influence a testicular cancer patient's prognosis?

Some key elements to consider when choosing a treatment strategy and determining the patient's prognosis include:

  • Stage of the cancer: The amount to which the testicular cancer has spread and which body organs have been damaged dictates the course of action and the possibilities of recovery.
  • Type of testicular cancer: The kind of testicular cancer plays a vital role in determining the prognosis and treatment options since the speed at which the disease grows and spreads is determined by the cancer type.
  • Age: The patient's age is a significant consideration when deciding on therapy because doctors must examine the drug's adverse effects and how they influence the patient.
  • Overall health: Overall health, medical history, and the patient's response to treatment all play a role in determining treatment modalities and their risk of consequences.

Prognosis for testicular cancer

Testicular cancer has a higher survival rate than many other cancers. Regular follow-up and review is critical to achieving positive results, so it's critical to keep all follow-up visits. Testicular tumours are categorised into three categories based on how well they are predicted to respond to testicular cancer treatment.

Good prognosis: For non-seminomas, if the tumour is found only in the testicle or in the retroperitoneum, the area outside or behind the abdominal wall, or if the tumour has not spread to organs other than the lungs and the levels of all tumour markers are slightly above normal, the patient has a good chance of living a comfortable life after treatment.

If the tumour has not progressed to organs other than the lungs and the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is normal, the prognosis for seminoma is good. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (-hCG) levels might be at any level.

Intermediate prognosis: For non-seminoma, if the tumour is located in one testicle only or in the retroperitoneum and has not progressed to organs other than the lungs, and if the level of tumour markers is above normal but not in the terrible prognosis risk area, it is called intermediate prognosis.

Seminoma has expanded to organs other than the lungs, and while the level of AFP in the blood is normal, -hCG and LDH might be at any level, the prognosis is intermediate.

Bad prognosis: Non seminomas have a poor prognosis if tumour markers are high and/or the malignancy has progressed to organs other than the lungs.

Seminomas are not in the group of cancers with a poor prognosis.

TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT

The following is a summary of the testicular cancer treatment options:

Surgery: Surgery is one of the most effective ways to treat testicular cancer since it can totally eradicate the disease in its early stages. Even if the cancer has spread, it is necessary to remove one or both testicles if the illness has damaged both. The two major operations for testicular cancer treatment are radical inguinal orchiectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.

Chemotherapy: It is a type of treatment that employs chemicals to kill cancer cells all over the body. It is used when testicular cancer has spread to other organs or if there is a risk of recurrence. It can be used as an adjuvant therapy both before and after surgery.

Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy involves killing cancer cells with high-intensity radiation and is also used if tumours are to be targeted, as opposed to chemotherapy, which kills cancer cells throughout the body. However, due to the risk of infertility, radiotherapy is only used if the cancer has spread or is likely to recur.