Tumors are removed through surgical methods. The doctor performs this operation by making small cuts in the abdomen above the pubic area and removing the testicle and spermatic cord. Surgical procedures necessitate extensive planning and follow-up, so the pre- and post-surgery periods are equally critical.

The following is a summary of the general procedure for treating testicular cancer surgeries:

Before surgery : Patients are taken into the operating room and made to lie down on a table before surgery. To relieve pain, they are frequently given local anaesthetic in the groyne area. The patient is sometimes put to sleep by administering anaesthetic to the entire body.

During surgery: The operation is carried out depending on the type of surgery. The goal of testicular cancer treatment is to remove the testicles.

Following surgery : The patient is admitted to a recovery room and observed for 1-2 days.

TYPES OF SURGERY

The doctor will choose the appropriate surgical method for the patient based on the diagnostic results

The surgical procedure for treating testicular cancer is as follows:

Radical Inguinal orchiectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the testicles from the inguinal

This is one of the most commonly suggested procedures for testicular cancer treatment. Almost all cancer treatments begin with a surgery to remove the cancerous testicles.In most cases, just one testicle is removed because it is extremely rare for both testicles to develop cancer and require removal. Bilateral orchiectomy is a treatment that involves removing both testicles.

The procedure entails creating an incision in the groyne along the beltline and entirely extracting the testicles, as well as the spermatic cord. Because the spermatic cord contains blood arteries, it is removed because it could act as a channel for cancer to spread.

Orchiectomy is used to diagnose and treat seminomas and nonseminomas at all stages. After chemotherapy for advanced stages of testicular cancer, the radical inguinal orchiectomy may be postponed. Blood samples from the patient are taken prior to surgery for tumour marker tests.

RPLND (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) is a procedure that removes the retroperitoneal lymph nodes from the back of the abdomen. RPLND is an extremely difficult procedure that should only be performed by surgeons with extensive experience. An incision was made in the centre of the abdomen for the procedure. Because it eliminates the lymph nodes, this treatment is particularly effective in slowing the progression of the cancer.

Laparoscopic RPLND is a novel treatment that removes lymph nodes using fewer incisions. It's safe to say that this has fewer adverse effects than the standard open RPLND. However, its usefulness is still being researched, thus it isn't fully implemented yet.

RPLND is also used to get rid of leftover tumours after chemotherapy.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SURGICAL PROCEDURES

After any surgery, there will be complications. However, these vary based on the surgically treated area, the patient's general health, the type of surgery, and, most critically, the stage and type of cancer.

  • Hematoma is a type of haemorrhage (bleeding into the scrotum)
  • Scrotum swelling and pain
  • Obstacles to bowel movement
  • Depression
  • Swings in mood
  • Fatigue
  • A decrease in testosterone levels
  • Sex drive may be reduced if both testicles are removed.
  • The nerves that control ejaculation may be damaged as a result of RPLND.
  • Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the sperm does not exit the urethra and instead travels backwards into the bladder.

Not every patient has the same issues; they can vary from one patient to the next. In the event of any of the aforementioned issues, a doctor should be consulted as soon as possible. Patients who have sufficient follow-up will be able to manage the side effects.

OUTLOOK

The tumors/testicles are successfully removed with surgical treatments. RPLND uses surgeries to remove testicular cancer in order to limit the cancer's growth.

Orchiectomy has a high success rate in terms of cancer removal. RPLND has an 80-90 percent success rate in removing malignancy from patients with one to five lymph nodes. Recurrent testicular cancer affects the remaining 10-20% of males. RPLND has a success rate of roughly 50% for individuals with more than 5 lymph nodes.

AFTERCARE

Following surgery, patients must exercise extreme caution in order to avoid cancer recurrence and manage with its repercussions.

Here are a few pointers to assist patients take excellent care of themselves:

  • For the first two to four weeks after surgery, avoid strenuous physical activity.
  • Wear loose-fitting pants.
  • Consult a dietitian about your eating habits.
  • Long-term adverse effects can be managed by visiting the doctor on a regular basis.
  • If you notice any difficulties, you should consult a doctor.
  • Blood cell monitoring should be done on a regular basis.
  • Monitor for recurrence on a regular basis, and if the cancer reappears, quick treatment is required.
  • Keep track of your personal health information.