The following are the treatment options available to treat bone cancer.

  1. Surgery (Primary treatment) - Involves removing the tumor from the body in one piece, along with a portion of healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The doctor replaces the lost bone with some bone from another area, with material from a bone bank, or with metal/plastic to replace the missing part.

2.   Chemotherapy (Adjuvant treatment)- Cancer cells are killed with anti-cancer

drugs administered intravenously (intravenously). Even so, this type of treatment

works better for certain types of bone cancer than for others.

  1. Radiation therapy (Palliative treatment) - Choosing radiotherapy may be the best option for people with bone cancers that cannot be removed with surgery. After surgery, radiation may be used to kill any cancerous cells that may remain. For those with advanced bone cancer, it may help control signs and symptoms, such as pain.

4.  Stem cell transplants

Transplantation of stem cells

When Ewing sarcomas are resistant to chemotherapy, radiation therapy and even

stem-cell transplants may be required. Stem cell transplants destroy the affected

region's bone marrow cells, and new cells are induced through the veins to

replace the lost cells via a blood transfusion. These young cells eventually settle

down and produce healthy bone cells.

There are two types of stem-cell transplants: autologous and autologous stem-cell transplants.

1) Transplantation of autologous stem cells

Certain leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma are treated by autologous transplants. Furthermore, there is no danger of new cells assaulting the body (known as the graft-versus-host cancer effect)

2) Transplantation of allogeneic stem cells

There are two types of donors in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. First and foremost, a close relative. Second, there's the MUD, or matched unrelated donor, who comes from the general population. MUD transplants are usually riskier than transplants from a patient's family.

  1. Targeted therapy

Targeted chemotherapy is similar to conventional chemotherapy in that it employs medications to treat cancer. It works by inhibiting cancer development and spread by targeting certain proteins and genes. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States has approved targeted medicines for a variety of cancers. In addition, these drugs:

  • cancer cells' ability to grow and divide is inhibited
  • Stop cells from lasting longer than they should,
  • and then kill malignant cells.

Examples

Denosumab (Xgeva) is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits osteoclast activity. It has shown to be useful in the treatment of giant cell tumours of the bone that have relapsed after surgery or cannot be removed.

  1. Clinical trials

Clinical trials are investigations conducted by doctors in order to discover new ways to improve medical techniques and technology. In addition, health practitioners must inform the patient and his or her family about the trial's purpose, scope, and safety. Trials in the clinic:

  • Find and diagnose cancer,
  • then treat it,
  • prevent it,
  • and lastly help people cope with cancer symptoms and side effects.