Diagnosis can help to increase the chances of successful treatment and recovery for throat cancer patients. Some of the methods of diagnosis used are:

  1. Clinical Examination and Endoscopy: It helps to discover cancerous lesions. A closer look at throat cancer through endoscopy done by using a tiny camera to transmit images onto a video screen helps to monitor signs of abnormalities or malignant growth.
  2. Imaging tests: Imaging tests that are used are:
  • Chest X-rays
  • CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scans of the upper body
  • PET (positron emission tomography) CT scans of the upper body
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans of the neck region

3. Biopsy: A  small tissue sample from the tumor/cancerous ulcer is removed to test for abnormalities, There are two types of biopsies used in the diagnosis of throat cancer:

  • Conventional biopsy (incisional/punch): In this; the oncological surgeons remove a very small part of the tissue area where cancer is suspected to have developed.
  • Fine-needle-aspiration biopsy (FNAC): In this; a thin needle is inserted into the affected area, and then a tissue sample is withdrawn and examined under a microscope.