The TNM method of staging cancer, which is commonly used to stage malignancies that produce tumors, is utilized to stage prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is staged using two additional parameters: PSA levels and grade (based on the Gleason score).
Stage 2 of prostate cancer
In this stage of prostate cancer, cancer has progressed throughout the prostate, affecting one or both of the lobes. These tumors do not spread beyond the prostate to lymph nodes or other organs in the surrounding area. Prostate cancer in stage II can be further divided into three stages:
Cancer has progressed throughout one of the prostate's lobes. These cancers have a Gleason score of 6 or less than 6, and PSA levels of 10 to 20.
The cancer is staged as cT1, N0, M0 Grade Group 1 when it is discovered by biopsies rather than through routine diagnostic procedures.
The cancer is staged as cT2a or pT2, N0, M0, Grade Group 1 when it is discovered to be contained to one half of a lobe of the prostate through screening or physical examinations and has not metastasized.
The cancer is staged as cT2a or pT2, N0, M0, Grade Group 1 if it is contained in more than half of one lobe of the prostate but has not disseminated.
Cancer has not gone beyond the prostate, but it is contained in more than one lobe, with a Gleason score of 7 and PSA values up to 20. T1 or T2, N0, M0, Grade Group 2 are the stages.
Stage IIC cancer is classified as T1 or T2, N0, M0, Grade Group 3 or 4, and has a Gleason score of 7 or 8 with PSA values less than 20. They've progressed throughout the prostate, with cancer found in both lobes.
What is the treatment for stage 2 prostate cancer?
The cancer is tiny and confined to the prostate gland in stage II prostate cancer, and its growth and spread may be sluggish, with no symptoms. The treatment plan is determined by the patient's age, overall health, and ability to withstand the treatment. The following are the most common treatment options for stage I prostate cancer:
Because this cancer type grows slowly, men may not need treatment right away, if not for the rest of their lives. Active surveillance is a technique for keeping a careful eye on malignancy on a frequent basis. Once every six months or so, a PSA blood test, DRE (digital rectal examination), and prostate biopsies may be performed. If the results indicate that the cancer is spreading, the therapeutic options for eradicating the malignancy are considered.
External beam radiation:
It is a sort of radiation therapy that involves the use of high-energy X-ray beams to eliminate malignant cells. It uses a machine outside the body to focus radiation beams on the prostate gland, which is used to treat cancer in its early stages.
Brachytherapy is a sort of radiation therapy in its own right. Small radioactive pellets the size of a grain of rice are implanted directly inside the prostate gland, a procedure known as seed implantation or interstitial radiation therapy. This treatment is used alone in people with cancer that is in its early stages and is growing slowly. Otherwise, it is preferable to use this in conjunction with other therapeutic options.
Surgery is the preferred treatment option for prostate malignancies that are symptomatic but limited to the prostate gland. The most common procedure is radical prostatectomy, which involves removing not just the prostate gland but also the surrounding tissue, including the seminal vesicles. The two types of procedures are radical retropubic prostatectomy and radical perineal prostatectomy, which differ in how the prostate is addressed.